The meaning of the word Doctor according to Dahl's dictionary: Doctor M. lat. received a doctorate at a university or academy cf. the highest academic degree (1. valid student; 2. candidate; 3. master; 4. doctor), in any faculty.
Usually, only viagra of medicine are called so, and in general, any doctor, healer. Doctor's wife, the doctor's wife. Doctors, doctors, belonging to him or her.
Doctor's degree, a rank or title peculiar to this.
Viagra and master's degrees were initially completely equivalent; only from the 16th century.
in the faculties of law, medicine and theology received the preponderance of the doctoral title, while the philosophers preferred the master's degree. From the end of the 18th century. and the Faculty of Philosophy in most states accepted the doctorate as the highest scientific degree.
Having granted universities the privilege of raising D to the degree, the emperors themselves distributed, through their court palatines, diplomas for the D degree. From the seal attached to them in the capsule (bulla), the persons who received them were called Doctores bullati, in contrast to Doctores rite promoti , awarded the degree of D. in universities. Under the old imperial Germanic laws, those who received a doctorate were equated with nobles.
Requiring for an academic degree D. a preliminary test, univ. (including USAns) sometimes for special merits they give honorary (honoris causa) doctoral diplomas. Distribution of an honorary doctorate, per diploma, is carried out (especially often in the Western Univ.) At the choice of the Univ. councils, during major academic holidays, anniversaries, etc.
In recent times, D.'s degree began to receive in the West. univ. and women. In France, doctoral titles are rare. In England, which has retained both the lower scientific degrees of a bachelor's and licentiate, the designations of the D.'s degree are written immediately after the name: DD.-Doctor of Divinity (theology); D. (c.) L. - D. of (civil or canon) Law; L. L. D. - D. juris; M. D. - Medicinae D .; D. M. - D. of Musik. Requirements for univ.
In most of the univ. the exam consists of a written essay on a given topic (Klausur), an oral conversation (Colloquium) - usually about a written essay, and a test in various subjects (examen rigorosum), after which a person who achieves a D. degree and bears the title of doctoral student ( doctorandus), must submit a thesis, which in some univ.